Pottery may have dispersed westerly across Siberia as forested areas expanded, perhaps resulting in the introduction of pottery into Europe by hunter-gatherer groups. However, the reindeer has other equally important attributes, including high-quality hide and sinew. De Sonneville-Bordes and Perrot's 1954-56 Upper Paleolithic typology, in its morphological precision, is clearly founded on typochronological preconceptions. But in recent years new evidence has become available. Identification of manufacturing techniques and use-wear traces was based on observation of ethnographic, experimental, and archaeological bone tools with a particular focus on needle manufacture and use-wear Wilder, 1976;Stordeur-Yedid, 1979;Bird and Beeck, 1980;Utrilla and Mazo, 1991;LeMoine, 1994;Castel et al. After their initial appearance, such traits increased in frequency and the extent to which they are expressed until they disappeared shortly after 30,000 years ago. Evidence for the late survival of Neanderthals in southern Iberia is limited to one possible site, Cueva Antón, and alternative models of human occupation of the region should be considered.
In Morocco, early modern humans have been recorded by at least 100 ka , and in Egypt, early modern humans have been recorded by, perhaps, 60 ka. The last hiatus corresponds to the replacement of Homo neanderthalensis by H. Some of this variation probably has to do with excavation and sampling techniques. Northern Atlantic Spain contains evidence of both Mousterian and Early Upper Paleolithic occupations, although most of them are not properly dated, thus hindering the chances of an adequate interpretation. The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye in archaeological cave sequences. The wider size range characteristic of Magdalenian specimens supports the idea that needles of different sizes were used in a variety of tasks. Iberia represents a significant macro-region to study this process.
Similarly, the primitive anthropologic meaning of erection is undefined. This eastern and topographically higher Trans-Ural region, with the administrative centre Nizhniy Tagil', is formed by small hills 300e400 m asl. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. South China sites are clearly earlier, and the contemporaneity of Japan and Russia does not rule out singular invention and spread, as sites of the same radiocarbon date in the Late Pleistocene actually fall within a real calendrical range on a centuries-long scale. However, because most fossil hominid remains are fragmentary, it can be difficult or impossible to determine unambiguously whether a fossil is of Neanderthal origin. The conclusion is made that the Middle to Upper transition in the Altai was an autochthonous process that affected the Upper Paleolithic industries of the adjacent regions of Southern Siberia. There is no direct evidence on persistence of the Lower? The location of the lowermost archaeological sites is evidence that a paleolake could have existed at an altitude below 1770 m a.
However, while these archaeofaunas from this cluster all derive from sites located within today's Mediterranean bioclimatic region, many of them are from locations far from the Mediterranean Sea - Atlantic Portugal, the Spanish Meseta - which today differ significantly from each other in biotic composition. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that the long-term average effective size of sub-Saharan Africa is larger than other geographic regions. It is of considerable interest to entertain the hypothesis that such structured relations between human groups were not charac- teristic of the Middle Paleolithic. In addition to bone and antler, shell and stone were used for ornamental purposes. A common feature of Paleolithic art forms is the salience of parts, and the treatment of parts indicates analytic and synthetic recombinative abilities.
The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. The general stratigraphic profile, which includes Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits, has been defined based on the data obtained from a number of sites in this region. Accurate and precise dating is vital to our understanding of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Perhaps more important is the fact that much of the earliest Upper Paleolithic bone and antler working seems to be oper- ating in a novel context which can be most conservatively described as nonutilitarian in a technological sense. We discuss the existing evidence on the practice of phallic piercing, scarring and tattooing in prehistory. A human phalanx, with a genome different from S G Keates et al. Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years.
Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. Evaluation of possible causes for the great stature of the Early Upper Paleolithic samples points to high nutritional standards as the most important factor. To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results. Figure 3 Posterior age of the Y-2 tephra, at 68. Geomorphologic evolution has been dated and appears to be driven primarily by coastal dune systems, sea-level changes and seismo-tectonic evolution. Klein 1969: 108 states that this is also the case in European Russia.
A study of scraper-blank technology from three Yabrudian assemblages retrieved from the early part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian complex of Tabun Cave ca. This paper first reviews recent finds of early pottery sites in South China and North China that now clearly show that the pottery first appears in otherwise Late Paleolithic contexts. Over time, they also developed more advanced stone tool kits, created increasingly sophisticated ornamental and ritual objects, and formed closer social networks, both heralding and signaling the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic cultures. The overall past and present landscape configuration with karst bedrock locations and surficial mineral deposit outcrops provided productive environments for the Middle Palaeolithic occupation, as well as later human settlements of this marginal geographical territory. These finds and their ages suggest the gradual evolution of a suite of Neandertal features during this period. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Hominins were driven from large tracts of northern Europe during the cold episodes but were able to recolonize when conditions ameliorated.
In this paper, I review and evaluate the available evidence. It is concluded that loess research during the past decade not only has developed rapidly to take an outstanding place in Quaternary sciences, but also promises exciting perspectives for the next decade, in particular when combined approaches are applied to benefit from the now comprehensive pool of established and new methods. For each tendency, primary reduction techniques, technical and typological characteristics of the toolkits, and non-utilitarian objects are analyzed. This leads one to enquire whether we are not seeing at Cueva Morin the early stages of experimentation with a new medium, %ut still making use of familiar stone-working techniques. Efficient behavioral innovations rapidly extending across the peninsula occurred only after that period of time.